"Jodhpur" (; ) is the second-largest city in the Indian States and union territories of India of Rajasthan and officially the second metropolitan city of the state. It was formerly the seat of a princely state of the Jodhpur State. Jodhpur was historically the capital of the Jodhpur State, which is now part of Rajasthan. Jodhpur is a popular Tourism destination, featuring many palaces, forts and temples, set in the stark landscape of the Thar Desert. It is popularly known as Blue city and Sun city among people of Rajasthan and all over India. However, the city has expanded greatly outside the wall over the past several decades. Jodhpur lies near the geographic center of the Rajasthan state, which makes it a convenient base for travel in a region much frequented by tourists. Arid Forest Research Institute (AAFRI), Desert Medicine Research Centre (DMRC) are also located in the city .
According to the Rajasthan district Gazetteer Ahirs were the inhabitants of Marwar and later on the Rajputs established their rule in Marwar. There may have been small settlements before Rathore rule.
The Jodhpur city was founded in 1459 by Rao Jodha, a Rajput Tribal chief of the Rathore clan. Jodha succeeded in conquering the surrounding territory and thus founded a kingdom which came to be known as Marwar. As Jodha hailed from the nearby town of Mandore, that town initially served as the Capital (political) of this state; however, Jodhpur soon took over that role, even during the lifetime of Jodha. The city was located on the strategic road linking Delhi to Gujarat. This enabled it to profit from a flourishing trade in opium, copper, silk, sandalwood, date (fruit) and other tradeable goods.
After the death of Rao Chandrasen Rathore in 1581, the kingdom was annexed by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, Marwar thus became a Mughal vassal owing fealty to them while enjoying internal autonomy. Jodhpur and its people benefited from this exposure to the wider world as new styles of Indian art and Indian Architecture made their appearance and opportunities opened up for local tradesmen to make their mark across northern India. At the time of division, the ruler of Jodhpur, Hanwant Singh, did not want to join India, but finally, due to the effective persuasion of Vallabhbhai Patel, the Home Minister at the time, the state of Jodhpur was included in the Indian Republic. Later after the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 it was included within the state of Rajasthan. the population of Jodhpur is 1,033,918 in 2011, where males constitute approximately 52.62 percent of the population and females constitute approximately 47.38 percent. The average literacy rate of Jodhpur is 80.56 percent, with a male literacy rate of approximately 88.42 percent and a female literacy rate of approximately 73.93 percent. Approximately 12.24 percent of the population is under six years of age.Jodhpur city is governed by Municipal Corporation which comes under Jodhpur Urban Agglomeration. The Jodhpur Urban/Metropolitan area include Jodhpur, Kuri Bhagtasani, Mandore Industrial Area, Nandri, Pal Village and Sangaria, India. Its Urban/Metropolitan population is 1,137,815 of which 599,332 are males and 538,483 are females. According to www.citypopulation.de population of Jodhpur city on 01/01/2019 is 1,440,000.
The climate of Jodhpur is hot and semiarid climate during its nearly yearlong dry season, but contains a brief rainy season from late June to September (Köppen climate classification ''BShw''). Although the average rainfall is around , it fluctuates greatly. In the famine in India year of 1899, Jodhpur received only , but in the flood year of 1917 it received as much as .
Temperatures are extreme from March to October, except when the Tropical cyclone produces thick clouds to lower it slightly. In the months of April, May and June, high temperatures routinely exceed 40 degrees Celsius. During the monsoon season, average temperatures decrease slightly. However, the city's generally low humidity rises, which adds to the perception of the heat.The highest temperature recorded in Jodhpur was on 25 May 1932 when it rose up to 48.9 degrees Celsius.
The Craft industry has, in recent years, eclipsed all the other industries in the city. The items manufactured include textiles, Cutlery, bicycles, India Ink and Sports equipment. A flourishing cottage industry exists for the manufacture of such items as Glass art, cutlery, carpets and marble products.
After the handicrafts, tourism is the second largest industry of Jodhpur.
Major agricultural exports in the district include wheat and the famous ''Mathania'' red chilies. The city serves as an important marketplace for wool and agricultural products.
Gypsum and Sodium Chloride are commonly mined exports. The Indian Air Force, Indian Army, Indo-Tibetan Border Police and Border Security Force maintain training centres in Jodhpur.
The administration of Jodhpur consists of a District Collector, followed by 4 additional District Magistrates (I, II, Land Conversion and City ADM). Presently, the Collector and District Magistrate is Sh. Prakash Rajpurohit (Indian Administrative Service).
The upcoming 9 MMTPA Oil refinery and Petrochemical to be set up by Hindustan Petroleum in Pachpadra, Barmer, Rajasthan will transform the industrial scene of the city drastically. Pachpadra lies just 60 kilometers from the industrial area of Boranada in Jodhpur. Around 120 by-products that are produced by the refinery are going to provide opportunities for new industries to be set up in and around Jodhpur.
India's most ambitious industrial development project, the over US$100 billion Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project is also going to impact industries in Jodhpur. Marwar Junction, which is located about 103 kilometers from Jodhpur will be one of the nine freight loading points along the DMIC route. Jodhpur and Pali, Rajasthan districts fall under the region that is going to be developed as a manufacturing hub for the DMIC.
The present Member of Parliament from Jodhpur is Gajendrasingh Shekhawat of the Bharatiya Janata Party.
Jodhpur is a significant city of western Rajasthan and lies about 250 kilometers from the border with Pakistan. This location makes it a key base for the Indian Army, Indian Air Force and Border Security Force. Jodhpur's South Western Air Command is Asia's largest and one of the most critical and strategically located List of Indian Air Force bases (The Jodhpur Airport played the crucial role during the Indo-Pakistani wars of Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 and Bangladesh Liberation War) deployed Sukhoi Su-30MKI and HAL Dhruv.
The city is famous for its food and its popularity can be judged by the fact that one can find sweet shops named 'Jodhpur Sweets' in many cities throughout India. Being at the onshore of Thar Desert desert, life has been influenced by ways of select nomadic tribes (So-called "Gypsy" groups - Banjare in Hindi - have settled in some parts of the city). Jodhpur has distinct cultural identity through its food Mirchi Bada and Mawa Kachori are famous ], clothes especially female clothes, Marwari language, hospitality here every one is greeted with 'sa' postfix to their name.'sa' is used to give respect and also implies the happiness of seeing that person. Like most other non capital towns of an Indian state jodhpur also successfully managed to keep alive its culture and its clearly visible in day today life. To get a glimpse of culture a tourist can visit Sadar Bazar known as Ghanta-Ghar, Tripoliya Market, Nai-Sarak Market [ all these three lies within 2 kilometers and are connected.
Jodhpur's most notable attractions are Mehrangarh Fort, Umaid Bhawan Palace, Jaswant Thada, and the Ghanta Ghar (Jodhpur),
Clock Tower. Tourists are also within proximity to Fort Auwa, Mandore, Kaylana Lake, Balsamand Lake, Mandaleshwar Mahadev Temple (Mandalnath), Ratanada Ganesh Temple, ISKCON Temple, Sardar Samand Lake and Palace, Masooria Hills, Veer Durgadas Smarak (monument, park, and museum) and Bhim Bhadak Cave. Other attractions of people are at markets of food, antique items, traditional clothes and traditional shoes (also called "Jodhpuri Mojari") held in Jodhpur.
The historic buildings and landscapes of the city were featured in a number of movies, including ''The Dark Knight Rises'' directed by Christopher Nolan, Baadshaho starring Ajay Devgn and Emraan Hashmi, ''The Darjeeling Limited'' starring Owen Wilson, Adrien Brody, and Jason Schwartzman, ''The Fall (2006 film)'' directed by Tarsem Singh, "Hum Saath-Saath Hain" directed by Sooraj Barjatya, "Veer (2010 film)" directed by Anil Sharma, "Shuddh Desi Romance" directed by Maneesh Sharma and "I (film)" directed by S. Shankar, "Kung Fu Yoga" starring Jackie Chan, Sonu Sood, Disha Patani, "Loafer (2015 film)" starring Varun Tej and Disha Patani; Supreme (film) starring Sai Dharam Tej and Rashi Khanna; Airlift (film) feat.in Akshay Kumar and Nimrat Kaur.
Some of the recreation places worth mentioning are:, Mandore Gardens, Kaylana Lake, Shastri Circle, Masuria Hill Garden, Rao Jodha Desert Rock Park, Science Park, Ummed Garden, Chokelav Baag, Machiya Safari Park
, Marwar Mahotsav, Gangaur, Baithmaar Gangaur Mela, Teej, Nag Panchami Fair, Sheetla Mata Fair, Baba Ramdev Pir Mela, Rajasthan International Folk Festival (RIFF), World Sacred Spirit Festival
player in Jodhpur, Chamunda Mata Temple (near Mehrangarh Fort), Raj Ranchhodji Temple, Achal Nath Shivalaya, Siddhanth Shiv Temple, Rasik Bihari Temple, Ganesh Temple, ISKCON Temple, Pal Balaji (pal circle), Shree Yade Mata Temple (Jhalamand), Sai Baba Temple Jodhpur, Santoshi Mata Temple,Ravana Temple Mandore, Shanichar Ji Ka Than Jodhpur, Baba Ramdev Temple Massuria Jodhpur, Santoshi mata temple jodhpur,
A number of dishes from Indian cuisine originated in Jodhpur, such as Makhaniya Lassi, Mawa Ki Kachori, Pyaaj Ki Kachori ("''kachori"'' of onion), Hot & Spicy Mirchi Bada, Dal Bati Churma, Lasan Ki Chutney (special gravy of garlic), Mirchi Ka Kutii, Gatte Ki Sabzi, Ker Sangri Sabzi, Raab, Semolina, Atta flour, Kachara Mircha Sabzi and Kadhi Pakora with Baajre Ka Sogra. Jodhpur is known for its sweets ranging from traditional "''Makhanbada''", "''Mawa Ki Kachori''", "''Malpua''", "''Ghevar''", "''Motichur Ke Laddu''", "''Besan barfi''", "''Thorr''" and "''Gulab Jamun''" to Bengali "''Rasgulla''" and "''Ras Malai''". There are other variety of items cooked in traditional ways prepared in Jodhpur.
Jodhpur is fast becoming a major education hub for higher studies in India. With many renowned academicians, Jodhpur is India's largest hub for preparation of the Chartered Accountant (CA) entrance examination held throughout India by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI).
The most notable include:, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur (IITJ) is a technical education institute in India, one of the new IITs. , AIIMS Jodhpur (AIIMS Jodhpur)., National Law University, Jodhpur (NLU Jodhpur) is one of the 17 universities imparting law education (established in 1999)., National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT Jodhpur): a fashion design institute (started in 2010)., Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Rajasthan Ayurved University (DSRRAU Jodhpur) is a university in the field of Ayurveda. The second university of its kind in India was started in 2003., Jai Narain Vyas University (JNVU, Jodhpur), formerly known as University of Jodhpur, is run by the State Government of Rajasthan (established in 1962)., Dr. S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur (established in 1965)., MBM Engineering College: the oldest engineering institution in Rajasthan, now a faculty of Engineering and Architecture, under JNVU (established in 1951)., Footwear Design and Development Institute (FDDI Jodhpur) is an institute established by the Government of India, Ministry of Commerce & Industry for the design and development of footwear, fashion and leather (started in 2012)., Indian Institute of Handloom Technology (IIHT Jodhpur) is one of the five institutes nationwide to provide research, development and technical education to the handloom industry., Sardar Patel University of Police, Security and Criminal Justice, started in 2013, is a university for research and education in the field of security, policing and criminal justice.
Major research institutes and organizations have been established in the city for promoting research:, Arid Forest Research Institute is one of the institutes of the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) working under the Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India for carrying out scientific research in forestry to provide technologies to increase the vegetative cover and to conserve the biodiversity in the hot arid and semi-arid region of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Dadara union, and Nagar Haveli union territory. The campus covers 66 hectares on the New Pali Road., Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI) is a premier Organisation of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), an autonomous organization under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India., Desert Medicine Research Centre (DMRC) is one of the 33 permanent institutes of Indian Council of Medical Research which is an autonomous body for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research in the country., Desert Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India (DRC-ZSI) is the regional arm of the only taxonomic organization in the country involved in the study of all kinds of animals to promote survey, exploration, and research leading to the advancement of Zoology study., Botanical Survey of India (BSI) is the nodal research organization under Ministry of Environment and Forests for research, exploration, and survey of the Plantae of India., Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is an organization working under the Department of Defence Research and Development of Ministry of Defence for design and development leading to the production of world-class weapon systems and equipment., Regional Remote Sensing Centre (RRSC, ISRO) is one of the five centers established under National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS) by Department of Space for remote sensing tasks at regional and national levels., MBM Engineering College: Research in Master and Ph.D. programs in branches of engineering is done by highly experienced faculty. In civil and chemical engineering, national and state projects are performed by this college.
Rajasthan High Court is the High Court of the state of Rajasthan. It was established on 21 June 1949 under the Rajasthan High Court Ordinance, 1949.
The High Court of Rajasthan was founded in 1949 in Jodhpur and was inaugurated by the Rajpramukh, Maharaja Sawai Man Singh on August 29, 1949. The first Chief Justice was Kamala Kant Verma and the current Chief Justice of the Rajasthan High Court is the Honorable Justice Indrajit mohanty. A bench was formed at Jaipur which was dissolved in 1958 and was again formed on January 31, 1977. Currently, there are forty sanctioned judges.
The city is administered by the Jodhpur Nagar Nigam headed by a mayor. For administrative purposes, the city is divided into 65 Ward (country subdivision), from which the members of the corporation council are elected for five years. The municipal corporation has 65 elected members known as councilors,
parshad in Hindi, representing their respective wards (65 geographical units of the city). The ward members are elected by direct voting by electorate for a period of 5 years. In addition to these 65 directly elected members, the corporation has 4 Ex-officio members (1 member of parliament, 3 members of legislative assembly, namely Sardarpura, Soorsagar, City) and 3 Nominated Members.
The city has well-established rail, road and air networks connecting it to other major cities of the country.
Jodhpur railway station is the divisional headquarters of the North Western Railways (NWR). It is well connected with railways to major Indian cities like Alwar, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Thiruvanathapuram, Kochi, Pune, Kota, Rajasthan, Kanpur, Bareilly, Hyderabad, India, Ahmedabad, Indore, Bhopal, Dhanbad, Patna, Guwahati, Nagpur, Lucknow, Gwalior, Jaipur etc. To decongest the main Jodhpur station (JU), the suburban station Bhagat Ki Kothi railway station is being developed as the second main station for passenger trains. At present 106 trains serves to both the stations. Some of the important trains originating from Jodhpur railway station are- Ranthambore Express (Jodhpur to Indore), Mandor Express (Jodhpur to Delhi), Suryanagri Express (Jodhpur to Mumbai), Marudhar Express (Jodhpur to Varanasi), Howrah Superfast (from Jodhpur to Howrah) etc.
Luxury trains: For experiencing the true magnificence and royal opulence of Rajasthan, luxury trains Palace on Wheels and Royal Rajasthan on Wheels and Maharaja Express are run jointly by Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation and Indian Railways. Jodhpur is one of the destinations of both of the trains.Recently a plan to start metro train service in Jodhpur was proposed to decongest the city traffic. However, this proposal is still pending with the state government for its approval.
Suburban stations around Jodhpur:
Jodhpur Airport is one of the prominent airports of Rajasthan. It is primarily a military airbase with a civil enclosure to allow for civilian air traffic. Due to Jodhpur's strategic location, this airport is regarded as one of the most important ones for the Indian Air Force.
Jodhpur has total of five FM stations:, Big FM (Indian radio station), Red FM (India), My FM, Vividh Bharti, Radio Mirchi, All India Radio
, Auwa, Arid Forest Research Institute (AFRI) Jodhpur, Mandore,List of tallest buildings in Jodhpur,Lordi Daijagra
• Rahul Jain